Alias – saját parancsok, sajátos névvel


A rendszeres Linux felhasználók nagyon gyorsan és hatékonyan tudnak „varázsolni” a parancssorral. Ez nem valami emberfeletti képesség, hanem sok gyakorlás és némi varázsszavak ismerete teszi lehetővé. Az egyik ilyen varázsszó az alias.

Mire is jó az alias?
Amikor hosszabb parancsokat használunk többször is, kezd bosszantóvá válni, hogy ugyanazt kel megismételni. Ilyenkor nagyon jó segítség számunkra az alias, ugyanis ezzel a megoldással saját egyedi parancsokat hozhatunk létre, vagy hosszú parancsokat rövidíthetünk meg. Egyik gyakori példa a ls –alF amit Ubuntu alatt az ll paranccsal kapunk.
Nézzük meg milyen alias-ok vannak már beállítva a rendszerünkbe.


Paraméterek nélkül kilistázza a beállított alias-okat

Nálam ez a lista alapból így néz ki:

alias egrep='egrep --color=auto'

alias fgrep='fgrep --color=auto'

alias grep='grep --color=auto'

alias l='ls -CF'

alias la='ls -A'

alias ll='ls -alF'

alias ls='ls --color=auto'

Alias beállításához add ki a következő parancsot:

alias rövidnév=’a hosszú parancsodnak a paraméteresneve’

alias beállítás

alias nano=’nano –c –B’

Beállítottuk, hogy a nano szerkesztő sorszámozással és biztonsági mentéssel induljon.

Listázd ki az alias-okat és ott fogod látni az általad beírt sort is.
Próbáld ki. Hát nem csodálatos?!
Igen, de figyelem! Ahogy kiléptél a Shellből ez a sor eltűnik. :-(
Aggodalomra nincs ok! Most megmutatom, hogy tedd ezt véglegessé.
A rendszerben beállított, alias-ok a .bashrc fájlba vannak beégetve. Ebből a fájlból kettőt is találunk. Egy a /home/felhasználó könyvtárunkba és egy a /etc/ könyvtárba van. Ha megnézzük annak a fájlnak a tartalmát, ami a saját könyvtárunkba van, megtaláljuk az úgymond rendszerbe égetett alias-okat. Az új alias-okat akár elkezdheted ide is beírogatni. De ha figyelmesen átolvastad a fájlt, akkor látni fogod, hogy fel van készítve arra, hogy a saját alias gyűjteményedet beolvassa. Keresd meg a következő sorokat:

if [ -f ~/.bash_aliases ]; then

    . ~/.bash_aliases


Ha nem találod a fenti sorokat, akkor írd be.
Most hozzuk létre a .bash_aliases fájlt

nano  ~/.bash_aliases

Írjunk is be egy pár rövidítést:

alias cls=’clear’

A Windowsból megszokott képernyőtörlés.

Ezek után lépjünk ki, majd megint lépjünk vissza és ellenőrizzük, hogy milyen szépen hallgat a Linux a varázsszavakra.


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