A nano szövegszerkesztő használata

 

Aki parancssorban dolgozik, előbb utóbb belebotlik valami szövegszerkesztőbe. A legtöbb disztribúcióban a vi az alapértelmezett eszköz a config fájlok átírásához. Ez egy elég kemény dió egy kezdő linuxosnak. A használata felér egy önkínzással, tehát hagyjuk meg ezt az örömet a tapasztalt linuxosok és a mazochistáknak :-)

Szerencsére a Debian alapú rendszereknél, alapból ott lapul a nano szövegszerkesztő is.

A program nano [opciók] [fájlnév] formában indítható. Az opciók listáját a -h kapcsolóval kapjuk meg.

A nanonak nincsenek különféle módjai mind az előbb említett vi szerkesztőnek, így rögtön indulás után szerkesztheted a szöveget. Ha egy config fájlt szerkesztesz (mint például az /etc/fstab), akkor használd a -w kapcsolót:

nano -w /etc/fstab

Ez kikapcsolja a sortörést. Ennek az ellenkezője a -$, azaz: laza sortördelés engedélyezése.

Új fájl létrehozásához:

nano fájlnév

A nano vezérléséhez billentyűkombinációkat használunk. Minden parancs a Ctrl+betű vagy Alt+betű formában adhatók ki. A leggyakrabban használtak a nano felületének alsó részén, a segítség ablakban jelenik meg. Ez a funkció kikapcsolható (de nem érdemes!) ha a -x kapcsolóval indítottuk a programot.

 

Ha indításkor megadtuk a fájlnevet, akkor a fájlnak a tartalmát puffereli. A pufferelt tartalomban a nyílbillentyűkkel mozoghatunk. A változtatások nem kerülnek kiírásra addig, amíg a pufferelt tartalmat vissza nem írjuk a fájlba. Magyarul, elmentsük a fájl. A változtatások mentéséhez használd a Ctrl+O parancsot (tartsd lenyomva a Ctrl-t és közben nyomd le a O-t is). Ha nem adtunk meg fájlnevet akkor most kérdezi meg hogy milyen fájlba akarunk menteni. Kilépéshez nyomd meg a Ctrl+X billentyűkombinációt.

 

Szöveg másolása és beillesztése mind a grafikus felületen megszokott módon nem lehetséges. Ezért trükközni kel egy kicsit. Használd a Ctrl+K parancsot egy sor kivágásához. Ennek hatására az adott sor eltűnik. Ezután vidd a kurzort oda, ahová be akarod illeszteni, és nyomj Ctrl+U. A sor újra megjelenik. Több sort kivágni, többszöri Ctrl+K ismétlésével tudsz elérni, majd egyetlen Ctrl+U megnyomásával tudod a kivágott sorokat beilleszteni.

Ha a sornak csak egy része kel, akkor ki kell jelölnöd a szöveget. Vidd a kurzort a kivágandó szöveg elejére és nyomj Ctrl+6 (vagy Alt+A). Most vidd a kurzort a kivágandó szöveg végére. A kurzor mozgatás hatására a szöveg ki lesz emelve. A kijelölés megszüntetésére nyomj újra Ctrl+6. Nyomj Ctrl+K a szöveg kivágásához, majd Ctrl+U-val illesztheted be a kívánt pozícióba.

Szöveg részek kereséshez használd a Ctrl+W parancsot és írd be a keresendő szöveget, majd nyomj Enter-t. A következő találat kereséséhez nyomj Alt+W.

 

A sorok számozása nincs bekapcsolva. Ha ezt a funkciót is használni akarod, akkor indítsd a nano -c opcióval. A sorszámozás a segítség ablak felett jelenik meg.

nano –c fájlnév

Sorok számozásának bekapcsolása

Általában a nano-val konfig fájlokat szerkesztünk. Érdemes mindig biztonsági mentést készíteni a szerkesztett fájlokról. Ha véletlenül rosszul sül el valami, akkor is vissza tudjuk állítani az eredeti helyzetet. Ehhez a nano szövegszerkesztő egy egyszerű kis kapcsolóval (-B ) - azaz nagy B betű - segítségünkbe lehet.

nano –B fájlnév

Biztonsági mentés készítés a szerkesztett fájlról. A biztonsági másolat ugyan aban a könyvtárban marad fájlnév~ néven.

 

Néhány fontosabb billentyűkombináció a nano használatához:

 

Ctrl+G

a funkciók teljes listája (a leírás oldalai között Ctrl+Y és Ctrl+V-vel mozoghatunk)

Ctrl+R

fájl beolvasása, beillesztése (a fájl tartalmát az aktuális kurzorpozíciótól illeszti be)

Ctrl+W

keresés a szövegben

Alt+W

ugrás a következő keresési találatra

Alt+6

az aktuális sor vagy a kijelölt terület másolása (copy)

Ctrl+6

kijelölés - a billentyűkombináció leütése után használjuk a kurzormozgató nyilakat a kijelöléshez

Ctrl+K

az aktuális sor kivágása (cut)

Ctrl+U

a vágólap tartalmának beillesztése (paste)

Alt+U

visszavonás (undo)

Alt+D

karakterek, szavak és sorok számlálása

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